In a study of over 50 transcription factors, Tbx6 alone was able to stimulate mesoderm formation in laboratory-grown stem cells, and could cause those stem cells to become cardiovascular or musculoskeletal cells. Researchers found that this essential role of Tbx6 in mesoderm and cardiovascular specification is conserved from lower organisms to mammals. This research report validated a new direct reprogramming-based approach that may enhance future regenerative medicine research.