Regenerative Medicine NowIs PRP a myth or an effective treatment for Male Patterned Baldness?Reversal of Skin Necrosis Caused by Facial Artery OcclusionPatient-Funded Stem Cell Therapy for GlaucomaPlug-and-Play Stem Cells May Soon Be a RealityTargeted Stem Cell Treatments May Cure LeukemiaCollagen Induction Therapy with Microneedling and PRPNew Stem Cell Treatments for Chronic AsthmaNeural Stem Cells Guided by Electrical StimulationWhy Research on Haploid Stem Cells is ImportantPRP Therapy Helps Colorado Man Avoid Orthopedic Surgery

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Is PRP a myth or an effective treatment for Male Patterned Baldness?


Androgenic alopecia is a common and distressing problem for both men and women. Often caused by genetics, referred to as hereditary hair loss, effects close to 80 million men and women. It is normal for us to lose hair daily but if you notice a bald patch or an increase in thinning you may be […]

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Androgenic alopecia is a common and distressing problem for both men and women. Often caused by genetics, referred to as hereditary hair loss, effects close to 80 million men and women. It is normal for us to lose hair daily but if you notice a bald patch or an increase in thinning you may be experiencing some other type of hair loss.

Hair loss can be caused by:

  • Diet and Nutrition
  • Hormonal Imbalances
  • Genetics
  • Auto Immune Disease
  • Disease and Infection
  • Physiological or Physical Stress
  • Medications

Diet and Nutrition A healthy diet with the right mix of nutrients, proteins and iron will improve the health of your hair. A strand of hair is made up by a majority of proteins. If you have inadequate protein in your daily diet a disproportionate amount of hair may go into the resting phase

Hormonal Imbalance Sex Hormones play a bigger part in Female hair loss although it all comes down to the Testosterone Estrogen balance in both men and women. Hypothyroid issues have long been known to cause hair loss, shedding and thinning.

Genetics Look at your parents and grandparents head of hair. Androgenic alopecia may be predominately hereditary, especially for men but also for some women.

Auto Immune When the body turns on itself and begins attacking its own systems. Auto immune disease that causes hair loss include Hashimotos thyroiditis, Lupus and alopecia areata.

Disease and Infection Medical conditions that can cause hair loss include Lupus, Lichen planus, and as thyroiditis.

Stress Stress can cause your hair to stop growing by sending a premature number of the hair follicles into the resting phase.

Medications

Many medications are known to cause hair loss. If you are on any medications check that hair loss is not listed as a direct side effect of taking them.

PRP as a Hair Loss Treatment There has been growing interest in PRP as a treatment for androgenic alopecia in the medical community. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) is a non-surgical injection treatment that uses the components of a person’s own blood to stimulate hair growth. The PRP is processed here in our clinic after a routine blood draw, then processed to remove the concentrated platelets and then reinjected back into the areas of thinning or baldness with a fine needle.

The growth factors found in the PRP include:

  • PDGF (Platelet Derived Growth Factor) stimulates the growth of dermal mesenchyme.
  • VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) creates new blood vessels as well as improves hair growth.
  • EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) activates the growth phase of the hair follicle and extends the hair cycle that is occurring during the injection of PRP.
  • FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factor) stimulates the proliferation and the differential of the endothelial cells and the keratinocytes.
  • NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) stimulates hair growth and acts as a stress mediator on the hair follicle.
  • IGF (Insulin Growth Factor) slows down cell death.

Numerous studies have concluded that PRP is a simple cost effective treatment that has shown remarkable benefits in the improvement of androgenic alopecia in both men and women. Dermalogic Therapy reported in their January 30, 2017 journal that six months after a single PRP treatment there was significant more hair regrowth than compared to both the 5% minoxidil and the control group.

Best Treatment Schedule Because our hair grows in cycles it is best to treat each of the cycles to get the best results. 4 Initial treatments will yield new hair growth with noticeable improvements in hair thickness and decreased shedding. Optional maintenance treatment would be every 2-6 months. and if you are looking to maximize regrowth and a thickness then maintenance of every 4-8 weeks would be recommended.

References El Taieb MA1, Ibrahim H2, Nada EA3, Seif Al-Din M4. Platelets rich plasma versus minoxidil 5% in treatment of alopecia areata: A trichoscopic evaluation. Dermatol Ther. 2017 Jan;30(1). doi: 10.1111/dth.12437. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Mak KK1, Chan SY. Epidermal growth factor as a biologic switch in hair growth cycle. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jul 11;278(28):26120-6. Epub 2003 Apr 24.

Pietro Gentile 1,2,*, John P. Cole 3, Megan A. Cole 3, Simone Garcovich 4, Alessandra Bielli 5, Maria Giovanna Scioli 5, Augusto Orlandi 5, Chiara Insalaco 1,3 and Valerio Cervelli 1. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 408; doi:10.3390/ijms18020408

Schiavone G1, Raskovic D, Greco J, Abeni D. Platelet-rich plasma for androgenetic alopecia: a pilot study. Dermatol Surg. 2014 Sep;40(9):1010-9. doi: 10.1097/01.DSS.0000452629.76339.2b.

Singhal P1, Agarwal S2, Dhot PS1, Sayal SK2. Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in treatment of androgenic alopecia. Asian J Transfus Sci. 2015 Jul-Dec;9(2):159-62

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Reversal of Skin Necrosis Caused by Facial Artery Occlusion


Full title: Reversal of skin necrosis caused by facial artery occlusion induced by a dermal filler using Platelet Rich Plasma. Over the last several years, there have been more and more reports in the literature of vascular compromise caused by inadvertent injection of dermal fillers. Some of these adverse events may be caused by simple […]

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Full title: Reversal of skin necrosis caused by facial artery occlusion induced by a dermal filler using Platelet Rich Plasma.

Over the last several years, there have been more and more reports in the literature of vascular compromise caused by inadvertent injection of dermal fillers. Some of these adverse events may be caused by simple mechanical compression of a facial vessel but the most severe events seem to be a result of actual embolization of filler material into a facial artery resulting in vascular occlusion and subsequent necrosis of tissue supplied by the vessel.

There is scant information in the medical literature regarding how best to manage these difficult and potentially disfiguring injuries. Initial emergency treatment commonly consists of injection of hyaluronidase, topical application of nitroglycerine ointment, oral or topical antibiotics, oral corticosteroids, and sildenafil. Some physicians also advocate hyperbaric oxygen treatments.

This is a report of a patient who suffered from an arterial occlusion as a result of dermal filler injection and her subsequent course of recovery aided by aggressive use of Platelet Rich Plasma.

On January 18, 2016, a small amount of calcium hydroxyapatite was injected into the upper nasolabial folds of a healthy 35 year-old female. She reported no discomfort to her injector during or immediately after the injection. Within a few hours she noticed that the upper nasolabial fold area on the right and the corner of her lip on the right had turned a little darker. She also noticed some swelling inside of her mouth.

By the next day (Post Injection Day 1) she noticed an increase in the dark areas and an increase in the swelling inside her mouth. Also, the area was becoming a little painful. On Post Injection Day 2 she consulted with a dermatologist who injected hyaluronidase into the area and digitally massaged it. She also was started on topical nitroglycerine, sildenafil, cephalexin and prednisone (60 mg/day for 3 days, then 40 mg/day for 2 days, then 20 mg/day for 2 days). On Post Injection Day 3 she received a hyperbaric oxygen treatment for 45 – 60 minutes.

On Post Injection Day 5 the patient took the photo below 5 with her cell phone.

Post Injection Day 5

On Post Injection Day 8, she received a second hyperbaric oxygen treatment. On Post Injection Day 9, she came in to see the author who initiated a Platelet Rich Plasma treatment program. The photograph below was taken by the author on Post Injection Day 9 or Treatment Day 0 (TD 0).

PID 9, TD 0

Since the previous photograph, there had been some minimal improvement in the dark necrotic area above the right naris and below the right commissure and some minimal re-epithelization. There was no necrosis or discoloration inside the mouth but there was still a dark necrotic appearing eschar along the nasolabial fold to the lip. The author administered her first treatment with Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) on TD 0.

Approximately 10 cc of blood was drawn into an 11 cc PRP Tube and spun for 12 minutes to separate the red blood cells from the platelets and plasma. Approximately 7 cc of plasma were obtained. Approximately 3 cc of platelet poor plasma supernate was discarded and the platelets in the remaining 4 cc of plasma were re-suspended to produce a super-concentrated PRP suspension. Calcium gluconate 0.6 cc was added to activate the platelets. Several injection sites were chosen and cleaned with betadine. Approximately 3 cc of the PRP was injected under the affected areas with a 30 G needle and the remainder was dripped onto the raw skin surface and massaged into the tissue. The patient was advised not wash her face for a few hours to allow the PRP to seep into the raw skin.

Two days later, on TD 2, she returned for follow-up. In the interim, she had received one additional hyperbaric oxygen treatment. The photograph labeled TD 2 was obtained.

TD 2

On TD 2, the epithelial borders were felt to be still too fragile for the mechanical trauma of microneedling so the PRP injections and topical application were repeated as before with the intention to eventually progress to microneedling to enhance the absorption of the PRP.

The patient returned on TD 6 and in the interim, had received an additional hyperbaric oxygen treatment. The PRP injections and PRP topical application were repeated as before.

She returned on TD 9 and in the interim, had received yet another hyperbaric oxygen treatment. On TD 9, the epithelial borders seemed to be healthy enough to support microneedling. As before, approximately 4 cc of super concentrated PRP were extracted. A small amount of anesthetic cream was applied to the epithelial edges with a Q-tip. Microneedling was performed at a depth of 1 to 1.25 mm. Three cc of PRP were dripped directly onto the microneedled areas and gently massaged in. One cc of PRP was injected along the epithelial borders superficially.

She returned on TD 14 after having received another hyperbaric oxygen treatment. The photograph labeled TD 14 was taken. She had received a total of five hyperbaric oxygen treatments and four treatments with PRP one of which included microneedling over a two week period. The necrosis had nearly completed resolved.

TD 14

The hyperbaric oxygen treatments were stopped but she continued to receive PRP injections and microneedling treatments at gradually increasing depths on TD 14, 20, and 28. The photograph labeled TD 40 was taken 49 days after the injury and 40 days after PRP treatments were initiated by the author.

TD 40

Although the necrosis had completely resolved, the patient continued to receive monthly PRP treatments to improve the texture and to soften the edges between the damaged and undamaged areas. Pre-treatment with a roller Radio Frequency device was added to stimulate additional collagen production before each PRP treatment. The patient felt that the Radio Frequency treatments helped accelerate improvement in texture.

CONCLUSION and DISCUSSION:
Inadvertent intra-arterial injection of dermal filler is likely to be significantly more common than reported in the literature. Aspiration prior to injection is recommended by filler manufacturers but most of the commercial fillers are not designed to display a flash of blood when the syringe plunger is pulled back. It can be very difficult to determine whether or not there is intravascular placement of the needle tip prior to injection. Also, usually these patients do not experience adverse symptoms from intravascular placement of filler until hours later. Phone calls from patients experiencing post-injection symptoms should be taken very seriously.

The use of injected hyaluronidase for emergency treatment of vascular embarrassment from dermal fillers has been recommended by several experts even if the filler causing the vascular compromise is not hyaluronic acid but calcium hydroxyapatite. Injected hyaluronidase may be effective at dissolving hyaluronic acid filler putting direct pressure on a vessel from outside its lumen. Presumably some hyaluronidase may possibly even penetrate into an occluded vessel to dissolve intravascular hyaluronic acid.

It is difficult however to understand how hyaluronidase would help relieve pressure or embolization from an injection of calcium hydroxyapatite, a filler which can not be dissolved by hyaluronidase. It is possible that hyaluronidase injected into an area of vascular occlusion or compression as a result of injection of calcium hydroxyapatite may even cause loss of some the patient’s native hyaluronic acid resulting in a volume defect that will require subsequent correction. Additional research would help clarify these points.

To date, there are no widely accepted treatment protocols to treat the necrotic aftermath of vascular compromise from dermal filler injections. I have seen and reported here rapid and dramatic improvement in facial necrosis by the aggressive use of Platelet Rich Plasma both directly injected and topically applied after microneedling. Physicians with patients who present with this dramatic complication may wish to employ aggressive PRP therapy prior to resorting to surgical debridement and repair.

PRP treatments may also be considered in other aspects of wound care. Diabetic ulcers, pressure sores, deep traumatic abrasions, and thermal injuries may benefit from vigorous treatment with PRP.

October 13, 2016

Francis E. Toscano, M.D.
Medical Director, Red Bamboo Medi Spa
2516 C McMullen Booth Road
Clearwater, FL 33761
727-432-7286
ftoscano@redbamboomedispa.com

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Patient-Funded Stem Cell Therapy for Glaucoma


Glaucoma cannot be cured, which is why there is great interest among patients, physicians, and scientists in new regenerative therapies for the disease. The clinical application of stem cell therapy holds great promise. Recent reports of patient-funded trials, where the patient pays to participate in a study and receive experimental stem cell treatments for glaucoma, […]

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Glaucoma cannot be cured, which is why there is great interest among patients, physicians, and scientists in new regenerative therapies for the disease. The clinical application of stem cell therapy holds great promise. Recent reports of patient-funded trials, where the patient pays to participate in a study and receive experimental stem cell treatments for glaucoma, have raised the question whether this approach is scientific and ethical.

Stem Cell Therapy for Glaucoma

Stem cells treat glaucoma in a number of ways. In early glaucoma, stem cells are neuro-protective and prevent the degeneration of ganglion cells in the retina. In patients with advanced glaucoma and considerable loss of vision, stem cells replace ganglion cells and replace connections as well as regrow optic nerve fibers to carry signals to the brain.

Patient-Funded Trials for Glaucoma

Private foundations, pharmaceutical companies, and the NIH traditionally fund medical research into new treatments, including stem cell therapies. However, clinical trials are expensive and funding is limited. The decreasing availability of funds from traditional sources has led to the emergence of patient-funded research where patients pay thousands of dollars to participate in a study. One patient was recently reported to have paid $20,000 to receive stem cell injections in one eye.

Is Patient-Funded Research Scientific?

On the surface, it would appear that patient-funded research is a great way for people to receive investigational therapies. However, there are both scientific and ethical factors that must be taken into consideration. Scientifically, the gold standard in medical research is a randomized clinical trial with a large number of participants. The study participants are randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. Patients in the control group receive either a placebo or standard approved therapies. In double-blind trials, to minimize bias, the patient and doctor do not know whether the patient is receiving the test drug or not.

This is the scientific method of assessing the safety and efficacy of any new treatment. In patient-funded research, the control group is absent (since it is unlikely someone will pay to not receive therapy). The fact that this critical step is overlooked in patient-funded research is deeply concerning. Without the control group, there is no way to tell whether the treatment under investigation is truly effective.

Is Patient-Funded Research Ethical?

Equally concerning are the ethical considerations of patient-funded research. The first factor is the disparity in accessibility where the patients who need the treatment most may not be able to afford it. The second consideration is the risk of exploitation where patients who have exhausted all options may opt for a treatment for which safety is unproven. Thirdly, patient-funded trials are not subject to the same regulations and monitoring as randomized clinical trials. Therefore, some physicians and clinics may use this approach to make a quick buck off unsuspecting patients by offering treatments that do not have FDA approval.

References:

  1. http://newswise.com/articles/stem-cell-therapy-for-glaucoma-are-we-there-yet

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Plug-and-Play Stem Cells May Soon Be a Reality


Advances in technology have made it possible for someone to buy the various components of a computer from an electronics store and build a sophisticated, functional, complex machine in their garage. Biologists have been experimenting with a similar approach to repairing and regenerating damaged tissues and organs in the human body. Limitations of Current Stem […]

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Advances in technology have made it possible for someone to buy the various components of a computer from an electronics store and build a sophisticated, functional, complex machine in their garage. Biologists have been experimenting with a similar approach to repairing and regenerating damaged tissues and organs in the human body.

Limitations of Current Stem Cell Technology

One of the key limitations in current stem cell technology is a lack of standardization. Every laboratory has a different method of producing and manipulating the cells. This means it is impossible to obtain the same results or compare experiments conducted at different labs. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has been at the forefront of efforts to resolve this issue. The Common Fund Regenerative Medicine Program is an initiative to standardize stem cells for both academic and commercial use. Standardization will be a huge step forward in developing innovative therapies for some of the most serious maladies that afflict humans.

Clinical-Grade and Laboratory-Grade Stem Cells

Clinical-grade stem cells are available for research and clinical trials in humans. Laboratory-grade stem cells are used in cell cultures and animal models. Laboratory-grade stem cells help establish the conditions that are conducive to the differentiation of stem cells into specific types of tissue such as heart, brain, and pancreatic cells.

Standardized Stem Cell Production

Standardization of stem cell processes is important for another reason – it aids in getting FDA approval and thereby getting lifesaving therapies to patients sooner. Standardized stem cells are produced under quality and safety standards that meet the regulations for clinical use. Therefore, the availability of standardized clinical-grade stem cells is the key to utilizing their huge potential in the future of medicine. In essence, these would be play-and-plug stem cells that can be applied to the treatment of a variety of diseases.

Treatment of Diseases with Stem Cells

Laboratory-grade stem cells have shown immense potential for the treatment of diseases in animal models. In mice, scientists have used stem cells to create insulin-producing cells to reverse diabetes. Animals with spinal cord injuries have regained limb function with the help of stem cells. Stem cells have been able to treat debilitating neuromuscular diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and muscular dystrophy in animals. Therefore, the implications of plug-and-play stem cells for use in humans are huge, and standardization is the first step in making these treatments a reality.

References:

  1. http://www.caller.com/story/life/columnists/2017/07/07/medical-discovery-news-plug-and-play-stem-cells/460764001/

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Targeted Stem Cell Treatments May Cure Leukemia


A researcher at Israel’s Ben-Gurion University of the Negev claims to have developed an innovative stem cell treatment that could potentially cure leukemia. The per capita fatality rate from leukemia in Israel is the fourth highest in the world. In the United States, the disease claims nearly 25,000 lives each year. Current Leukemia Treatments The […]

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A researcher at Israel’s Ben-Gurion University of the Negev claims to have developed an innovative stem cell treatment that could potentially cure leukemia. The per capita fatality rate from leukemia in Israel is the fourth highest in the world. In the United States, the disease claims nearly 25,000 lives each year.

Current Leukemia Treatments

The majority of currently available treatments for leukemia, which is a type of blood cancer, are focused on chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. Dr. Roi Gazit has been intensively researching more targeted therapies for the disease in the hope that they will be more effective and even curative.

Current leukemia therapies have several advantages, but are nonspecific. Gazit’s research is focused on identifying treatments for specific sub-types of the disease. The problem is that one size does not fit all. Tailor-made therapies are more likely to succeed in treating the disease.

Targeted Stem Cell Therapy for Leukemia

Gazit’s research involves using hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow to treat the cancer. These stem cells have the ability to divide and generate different types of cells found in human blood. This ability of stem cells is being used to target some of the most serious diseases that afflict the human body.

In his experiments, Gazit utilized primary stem cells cultured from the study subject. He then turned these cells into malignant leukemia cells in mice to study their behavior and the spread of the cancer. The idea was to develop a treatment that would halt the spread of leukemia with the help of hematopoietic stem cells. Gazit hopes to not only develop a cure for leukemia but also aid other scientists who are working on different types of immunotherapy. The experiments will help us gain a deeper understanding of leukemia, and this understanding will translate into better treatments and a cure in the future, he says.

References:

  1. http://www.jerusalemonline.com/news/in-israel/health-and-environment/bgu-targeted-stem-cells-might-hold-the-key-to-eradicating-leukemia

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Collagen Induction Therapy with Microneedling and PRP


An increasing concern of ours is facial aging. As we age we lose volume, we fight gravity and we lose the integrity of our skin causing it to wrinkle. We desire youthful, bright, hydrated, firm skin. Collagen induction therapy is one way that we can achieve all of this. What is it? Microneedling is a […]

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An increasing concern of ours is facial aging. As we age we lose volume, we fight gravity and we lose the integrity of our skin causing it to wrinkle. We desire youthful, bright, hydrated, firm skin. Collagen induction therapy is one way that we can achieve all of this.

What is it?

Microneedling is a collagen induction modality used for skin rejuvenation, scar remodeling and skin tightening. Collagen Induction therapy (CIT) as we call it, is done with a microneedling instrument where the skin is punctured with tiny microscopic needles to create channels in the epidermis. This stimulates the body’s healing response and triggers the release of growth factors and induces collagen production without damaging the skin. Several studies have been written explaining the varies steps but, in a nutshell, there is the inflammation stage, the proliferation stage, and the remodeling stage.

The inflammation stage begins immediately after the injury or the stamping of the needle into the skins surface. Platelets are activated either innately by the injurious action of the puncture or accentuated by the topical application of PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma). The platelets promote the release of the chemotoxic factors causing the release of neutrophils and fibroblasts and sets the release of the proliferation stage.

The proliferation stage releases the growth factors responsible for the stimulation of collagen and elastin. These growth factors included are Platelet Derived Growth Factor(PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factors alpha and beta (TGF-alpha and TGF-beta), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and keratinocytes.

The Remodeling stage continues long after the injury has occurred. The collagen takes up to a year to completely mature in the upper dermis and will last for a few years.

The production of new collagen results in remodeling, increased tone and compactness of the tissue.

What happens when we add the PRP?

Microneedling is also used as a transdermal delivery system for therapeutic drugs and nutrients. When we add Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) to the treatment we see substantially greater results. PRP intensifies the healing cascade. Patients love it because it is all natural, the PRP comes from your own blood. A split face clinical study done last fall showed that when PRP combined with Microneedling enhanced the final outcome when compared to with microeedling done alone.

Who should be doing it?

Those with aging or thinning skin will see great results in the erasing of fine lines, improved texture and tightening of their skin.

But it isn’t just for aging skin!

Acne scars such as the boxcar or rolling scars respond beautifully to microneedling with PRP.

Stretch marks improve with microneedling. An Egyptian study compared Microneedling with CO2 laser and the conclusion resulted in favor of Microneedling over CO2 laser for stretch marks

PRP when injected into the tear trough area is an exceptional way to improve dark circles or hollowed appearance without the risk of Tyndell effect which can occur when we use hyaluronic acid. Microneedling with the addition of a TCA peel will significantly improve dark circles under eyes.

Darker skin tones can benefit from microneedling with PRP because with several other treatment options there is the risk of hyperpigmentation. This option has far less potential complications compared to laser or chemical peels.

PRP is a simple cost effective treatment that has shown remarkable benefits in the improvement of hair loss in both men and women.

What can I expect?

You can expect your skin to firm up, your wrinkles to slowly lift, acne scars to fade, or your stretch marks to disappear. One study compared the results of microneedling with CO2 laser and found that in the laser arm of the study only 5 had improvement where 9 out of 10 microneedling patients showed improvement.

This is remarkable considering the cost and downtime of CO2 laser.

Where besides my face can microneedling and PRP help?

Anywhere on the body where you have thinning skin or scars. This treatment is not limited to the face alone. Breasts, stomach, legs, neck, you name it and it can be treated.

How often should I have it done?

The studies show that 4 treatments done one month apart have 400% of increase collagen and elastin which is seen at 6 months. It is then recommended to do periodic maintenance treatments to maintain the results.

In conclusion Microneedling with or without PRP is a simple, inexpensive, safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation, stretch marks, hair loss regeneration, and scar remodeling

References:

Dermatol Surg. 2017 Mar;43(3):321-339. doi: 10.1097/DSS.0000000000000924.

Microneedling: A Comprehensive Review.

Hou A1, Cohen B, Haimovic A, Elbuluk N.

Journal of Cosmetic Laser Therapy Volume 18, 2016

Treatment of striae distensae with needling therapy versus CO2 fractional laser

Mohamed H. Khater, Fathia M. Khattab & Manal R. Abdelhaleem

  • Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2014 Oct-Dec; 7(4): 209–212. doi: 10.4103/0974-2077.150742

Split Face Comparative Study of Microneedling with PRP Versus Microneedling with Vitamin C in Treating Atrophic Post Acne Scars

Simran Chawla

  • Cosmet Laser Ther. 2016 Oct;18(5):289-92. doi: 10.3109/14764172.2016.1157363. Epub 2016 Apr 15.

Combination of microneedling and 10% trichloroacetic acid peels in the management of infraorbital dark circles.

Kontochristopoulos G1, Kouris A1, Platsidaki E1, Markantoni V1, Gerodimou M1, Antoniou C1.

Int J Dermatol. 2015 Dec;54(12):1361-9. doi: 10.1111/ijd.12761. Epub 2015 Jun 20.

Multiple microneedling sessions for minimally invasive facial rejuvenation: an objective assessment.

El-Domyati M1, Barakat M1, Awad S1, Medhat W1, El-Fakahany H1, Farag H1.

Indian Dermatol Online J. 2016 Jul-Aug;7(4):244-54. doi: 10.4103/2229-5178.185468.

Microneedling: Advances and widening horizons.
Singh A1, Yadav S1.

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New Stem Cell Treatments for Chronic Asthma


Researchers at Australia’s Monash University have developed a new stem cell treatment that could benefit people who suffer from chronic asthma. Scientists at the Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute have conducted experiments with pluripotent stem cells with early results reported as promising. Experimental Expertise The Monash scientists have applied their experimental expertise to a model developed […]

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Researchers at Australia’s Monash University have developed a new stem cell treatment that could benefit people who suffer from chronic asthma. Scientists at the Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute have conducted experiments with pluripotent stem cells with early results reported as promising.

Experimental Expertise

The Monash scientists have applied their experimental expertise to a model developed by Cynata Therapeutics. The process involves deriving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs). IPSCs can be generated from mature cells in adult humans and have the ability to differentiate into a number of tissues. In this instance, the scientists used IPSCs to derive mesenchymal stem cells that can repair and regenerate the damaged tissue in the lungs of chronic asthma patients.

Scientific Model

Dr. Simon Royce and Associate Professor Christian Samuel, lead researchers of the study at Monash, tested the effectiveness of MSCs in treating three key components of chronic asthma, which is an allergic disease of the airways:

  • Inflammation
  • Structural changes in the lungs
  • Hyper-responsiveness of the airways

The results of the study, published in FASEB Journal, reveal that MSCs are effective in reducing inflammation, reversing the remodeling (structural changes) that occur in the lungs of asthmatics, and normalizing the hyper-responsiveness that is characteristic of the disease. The most important finding, however, was that the MSCs could treat scarring and hardening of the lung tissue (fibrosis).

Clinical Application

The idea is to develop a standalone therapy for chronic asthma that is easy to administer. The researchers hope that this new treatment could serve as an adjunct therapy to patients who are unresponsive to corticosteroids.

This is the first time that stem cells have been able to reverse the scarring in the lungs. Earlier experiments showed that other types of stem cells needed to be combined with anti-fibrosis drugs to achieve a similar effect. Scarring of lung tissue is responsible for one of the most debilitating symptoms of asthma, i.e., difficulty breathing.

Future Possibilities

In the future, research will be focused on combining the MSCs with corticosteroids and/or comparing their efficacy to conventional asthma therapies. Following this, the group at Monash envisages clinical trials to test the safety and efficacy of MSCs.

References:

  1. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170628095853.htm

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Neural Stem Cells Guided by Electrical Stimulation


The results of a study published in Stem Cell Reports indicate the electrical stimulation can be used to guide neural stem cells to the site of damaged brain tissue. This is a breakthrough finding since it will allow scientists to more minutely control stem cell treatment. Current Science The flow of neural stem is normally […]

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The results of a study published in Stem Cell Reports indicate the electrical stimulation can be used to guide neural stem cells to the site of damaged brain tissue. This is a breakthrough finding since it will allow scientists to more minutely control stem cell treatment.

Current Science

The flow of neural stem is normally controlled by chemical guides. This means that stem cells introduced into the brain end up in a default location. Scientists have been trying to more tightly control the flow of neural stem cells so that they can be directed to damaged brain tissue instead of healthy tissue at the default site.

New Research

Alan Trounson, a stem cell expert at Australia’s Hudson Institute, has led the study in which electrodes were applied to rat brains to coax neural stem cells to move towards the lateral ventricle and subventricular zone instead of the olfactory bulb which is the default site. The technique has great potential for clinical application as it would allow doctors to guide neural stem cells to severely damaged brain tissue.

Co-author of the study, Min Zhao, from UC-Davis explains that the effect of the electrical stimulation was unexpected. “We didn’t think it was possible to reverse the direction of flow of the cells,” he says. The chemicals that direct flow within the brain are very powerful. The experiments prove that electrical stimulation can overcome the commanding influence of these chemicals.

Scientific Experiment

The group in Australia tagged human neural stem cells with a fluorescent marker and injected them into a migration stream in rat brains. This stream typically carries nerve cells to the olfactory bulb. However, the scientists then applied electrodes and changed the direction of the cell stream against the usual rostral migration stream. When tested 3 weeks and then again 4 months later, the effect was persistent and the stem cells were continuing to migrate to the target area and differentiate into the various types of brain cells.

Clinical Application

Researchers are particularly interested in guiding neural stem cells to damaged tissue to treat conditions such as stroke and Parkinson’s disease which affect specific areas of the brain. The idea is to regenerate healthy neural cells in these areas to reverse the effects of the disease. In mammals, neural stem cells are stored deep in the brain and must travel long distances to the site of damage. Chemical cues do guide neural stem cells to damaged tissue, but the scientists wanted to develop a more direct approach for stem cell therapies.

Future Possibilities

Currently, scientists rely on chemical guides, both natural and those developed in the laboratory, to move cells to the desired location. Although past studies have shown that electrical stimulation is successful in coaxing a change in direction in a laboratory dish, this is the first time such results have been observed in a living animal. Since rodent brains are different from mammals, the next step is to test this concept in primates. As far as applying the technique to humans is concerned, the scientists acknowledge that a less invasive method than electrical stimulation needs to be evaluated. In the meantime, the findings are a big step forward in treating neurodegenerative diseases with stem cells in the future.

References:

  1. http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/49782/title/Electrical-Stimulation-Steers-Neural-Stem-Cells/

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Why Research on Haploid Stem Cells is Important


Human embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell found in the human body. The scientific community believes that stem cells hold the key to the prevention and treatment of diseases. Now researchers are discovering that haploid stem cells could change the face of medicine. Haploid versus Diploid: What is […]

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Human embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell found in the human body. The scientific community believes that stem cells hold the key to the prevention and treatment of diseases. Now researchers are discovering that haploid stem cells could change the face of medicine.

Haploid versus Diploid: What is the difference?

The majority of cells in the human body are diploid, i.e., they contain two sets of chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father. Eggs and sperm are the only cells with a genome that is haploid. Thus far, scientists have been successful in creating haploid stem cells in animal models (monkeys, mice, rats) but not in humans. Haploid embryonic stem cells (ESCs) contain only one set of chromosomes. The ability to isolate haploid ESCs and replicate them in the laboratory is of great scientific significance because it will allow researchers to examine a single set of chromosomes rather than a mixture of chromosomes from both parents. It’s easier to understand how a drug treats a particular disease when there is only one copy of every gene to study.

Milestone Research

Ido Sagi, a Ph.D. student at the Azrieli Center for Stem Cells and Genetic Research in Jerusalem, has succeeded in isolating haploid ESCs in humans. An unfertilized human egg was forced to produce haploid “daughter cells” with a combination of chemical and electrical treatment. The human haploid stem cells, unlike those in mice, were able to divide and mature into other tissue types including the heart, brain, and pancreas, even though they only contained a single set of chromosomes.

This is a milestone in stem cell research because it will help scientists understand human reproduction and development. Examining a single set of chromosomes is the key to developing a deeper understanding of human reproduction which will, in turn, make it easier for scientists to develop precise genetic screening and test drugs. For instance, it could enable doctors to predict which patients will be resistant to certain chemotherapy drugs. This has tremendous implications in cancer treatment.

Personalized Medicine

Some companies are already using this research to develop diagnostic kits for cancer patients. These kits predict a patient’s resistance to chemotherapy. A large collection of human pluripotent stem cells is being built.

References:

  1. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170628131826.htm
  2. http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/45620/title/Haploid-Stem-Cells-Created/

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PRP Therapy Helps Colorado Man Avoid Orthopedic Surgery


Platelet-rich plasma therapy, commonly known as PRP therapy, has been available for more than a decade now and continues to gain popularity. Recently, a high school teacher in Colorado, Floyd Aker, received PRP therapy in his shoulder and was able to avoid orthopedic surgery. How does PRP therapy work? The underlying principle of PRP therapy […]

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Platelet-rich plasma therapy, commonly known as PRP therapy, has been available for more than a decade now and continues to gain popularity. Recently, a high school teacher in Colorado, Floyd Aker, received PRP therapy in his shoulder and was able to avoid orthopedic surgery.

How does PRP therapy work?

The underlying principle of PRP therapy is to allow the body to heal itself. Aker thought it was a pretty neat concept when his orthopedic surgeon, Dr. Chris Jones, explained it to him. A sample of his blood was drawn and centrifuged to separate the platelets. The platelet-rich plasma was then injected back at the site of injury. Platelets contain a high concentration of growth factors. When the body is injured, platelets are the first responders. PRP therapy harnesses this healing power of platelets. Interestingly, patients who receive PRP therapy recover much faster. Surgery and rehab for the type of injury Mr. Aker had would have taken up to 12 months of recovery.

Is PRP therapy painful?

PRP therapy is an outpatient office procedure. The injections are given under local anesthetic, and while they may be uncomfortable, the discomfort is short-lived. The amount of pain is also dependent on the site of injury and injection as well as the individual patient’s pain threshold. Dr. Jones says the pain is tolerable for most patients and the doctor can usually numb things up to keep the patient comfortable.

How quickly does PRP therapy work?

In Mr. Aker’s case, the injections were mildly painful but worth it for the excellent results. Once the local anesthetic wore off, he did feel some soreness and pain. For the first three days, he could not move his arm above waist level, but on the fourth day, he had a return of full range of motion in his shoulder.

References:

  1. http://www.koaa.com/story/35757493/your-healthy-family-prp-therapy-can-be-an-alternative-to-orthopaedic-surgery

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